a term used to describe an act that is considered improper or immoral and/or not permitted by the law
freedom from being criminally charged
impaired driving
driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs
being fair and neutral; without bias or prejudice
the most serious of all sentences, it is the punishment of placing someone convicted of a crime into prison or a penitentiary (also known as incarceration)
inadmissible evidence
evidence in a trial that is not allowed to be presented for a particular reason
a principle of sentencing that acts to prevent, at least temporarily, a criminal with a high risk of re-offending by incarcerating them
confinement in a jail, prison or penitentiary
sexual acts between relatives
the number of crimes committed by the average criminal in a certain area over a given time period (number of crimes/criminal); (compare with prevalence)
indefinite sentence
see indeterminate sentence
indeterminate sentence
an order by a court that a person be confined until the satisfaction of a specific condition; the only type of indeterminate sentence is that given to persons declared dangerous offenders
indictable offence
offences of a serious nature that can result in the offender being incarcerated, these are often tried by judge and jury; compare with summary conviction offence (fines)
an accusation in writing of a serious (indictable) offence
the killing of a child under one year of age
any person that provides information, based on reasonable grounds, concerning a person who has committed an offence
initial victimization
the harm that is first felt by a victim of a crime
an offender who in a prison or a penitentiary
an inquiry into the cause of death
incapable of knowing the act was wrong due to a mental disorder; someone who is insane is not criminally responsible or open to punishment
doing something with design or purpose; the person knows that the act is wrong and commits it anyways; they do this knowing that there may be consequences for this act
intermittent sentence
a prison sentence that can be served in short bits instead of one long stretch; the most common type is that in which an inmate spends weekends in jail and lives at home during the week to work or attend school
intoxication defence
a defence which holds that the accused was too intoxicated by drugs or alcohol to know what he or she was doing at the time of the offence; (see also “automatism”)
intra-familial sexual abuse
child sexual abuse that involves a perpetrator from the child’s family, someone who is usually, although not always, living in the same house as the victim – including parents, siblings, other blood relatives, and stepparents; (compare with “extra-familial sexual abuse”)
invitation to sexual touching
inviting, inciting, or coercing a child under 14 years of age to touch the body of any person for a sexual purpose
john howard society
a prisoners’ advocacy group who support and assist offenders and who defend, promote, or fight for the rights of offenders; they are primarily concerned with male offenders; (see also Elizabeth Fry Society)
controls events in the courtroom, decides guilt (if there is no jury), and sentences the offender
the decision, verdict, or sentence of a court
see “judiciary”
judicial determination
when convicted of a Schedule I or Schedule II offence (specified personal and drug offences), the sentencing judge can order that an offender not be eligible for parole until serving one-half of the sentence (as opposed to one-third)
judicial interim release
see “bail
judicial recognizance order
an order from a court (often referred to as a ‘peace bond’), which orders a person to keep the peace and to be of good behaviour; it can also order the person not to contact certain people and to keep a certain distance away from certain places; the bond can last up to twelve months, and its terms are decided upon by the judge; if the defendant breaks the terms of the order, he or she can be arrested and sent to prison
judicial review
see “faint hope clause
the area of government that interprets and administers the law; judges
a legal scholar; a judge
a person sworn as a member of a jury
members of the public who have been chosen by both the Crown attorney and the defence to decide whether the accused is guilty or not; in the case of second-degree murder, the jury in addition to deciding guilt, can also recommend when the offender should be eligible for parole (10 to 25 years)
justice of the peace (JP)
an officer of the court whose principle role is during the pre-trial stages; can receive information to initiate charges, preside over some bail hearings, and issue arrest and search warrants
justifiable homicide
murder that is allowed under the law; e.g. a police officer shooting a armed suspect who is attempting to kill the police officer