Introduction

Human trafficking is the fastest growing lucrative business in the world. It is also the second largest organized-crime worldwide. This black market industry is estimated to make over 10 billion dollars annually. Human trafficking is a form of slavery in which the victims are used for either sexual or labour purposes.

Though most prominent in Europe, humans are trafficked all around the world. The majority of victims are sold into the sex trade where they are tortured, raped, drugged, and beaten and otherwise treated as anything but human. They are forced to dance in clubs or held locked in dirty rooms until a ‘client’ comes. Expected to work 24 hours a day, these people, often women, are quickly drained and often left numb and broken, if they even survive.

Definitions

Human trafficking is the buying and selling of a human beings for sexual or labour related purposes; human trafficking is slavery.  The United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime defines human trafficking as the following:

“Trafficking in persons” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power, and of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits, to achieve the consent of a person to be in control of another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.”

It is important to note that human trafficking is not the same as human smuggling.  Roughly 85% of trafficked persons are trafficked into the sex trade; about 10% are trafficked for labour and the remaining 5% for other purposes. Because of these statistics the focus of this paper will be on human trafficking for sexual purposes.

Victims of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is a global phenomenon and the victims come from all around the world. Eighty percent of the victims are female and fifty percent are children. Historically, victims have been recruited through acquaintances but with the development of technology, the internet has become a popular tool for recruitment. The targeted age group is between 8 and 18 years of age, and the victims are usually poor, orphaned, abandoned, or runaways. If the individual has a drug addiction this increases their vulnerability.

The typical scenario is that a young person (usually female) is promised work in a rich country as a server, maid, or nanny. Once the victim arrives at the destination her/his identification and travel documents are taken away and usually destroyed. The victim is then groomed, manipulated, coerced, threatened, and forced into enter the sex trade. Once they become a part of the sex trade the victims receive little money for their work and any money they do make is often taken away and they are told that the money goes towards their food and lodging.

Example 1: Tania
Twenty-three year old Tania from the Ukraine was tricked into going to Turkey to work as a nanny. Regular customers, a husband and wife, at her cafe job in the Ukraine promised her $1000 dollars a month if she worked for them. They knew that both her mother and brother were sick with tuberculosis and that Tania needed the money to pay for the medical bills. The couple promised that she could leave at any time to return home, they would even purchase her ticket.

Tania never got a job as a nanny, but was sold to a violent pimp in Istanbul, Turkey. She was locked indoors at all times and forced to work 24 hour days. Tania would service about 8 men a day and wasn’t allowed to use condoms. Tania had become pregnant before she was kidnapped, and was forced by her pimp to have an abortion. Tania was sold three times until a “kind client” bought her and sent her home. She was gone a total of two and a half months.  For more on Tania please visit: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/slaves/map/tania.html

Example 2: Eva
Eva lived with her brother in a big apartment in Hungary. She worked in the film industry, making music videos. When she realized that they were far behind in rent she checked the newspaper for better paying jobs abroad. She found an advertisement looking for nannies and housekeepers for families in Canada, the United States, and England. Eva called and was told of a job opportunity in Toronto, Canada with a Hungarian family. Eva didn’t speak any English when she arrived in Canada, and after some difficulties in customs she was taken to a locked motel room where she was raped and beaten. The contract Eva had signed for the housekeeping job was really for a job as an exotic dancer. Eva was brought into Canada under a ‘stripper’ visa and forced to work at a club; all the money she made went to her captors. Eva eventually managed to escape with the help of the club manager and went to the Canadian police. The stripper visa program no longer exists in Canada.  For more about Eva please visit: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/slaves/map/eva.html

Example 3: Katia
Katia, four and a half months pregnant, was encouraged by her mother to travel to Turkey to buy some things for her mother’s shop. An acquaintance, Vlad, offered to travel with her. He spoke the language and was going to Turkey anyways. He promised Katia’s husband, Vioerel, that he would keep her safe. Vlad sold Katia for $1000 dollars and then called and informed her husband of what he did. Katia was then resold to a particularly violent pimp by the name of Apo. Katia was beaten, drugged, and raped over the course of several weeks. Her husband, Viorel, desperately sought her out and tired to save her. With the help of the FRONTLINE team who filmed the documentary “Sex Slaves”, Viorel was able to save Katia. However, Katia did have to terminate her pregnancy as a result of the violence she faced.  For more on Katia please visit: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/slaves/map/katia.html

Traffickers suggest that the women can buy their freedom by working and making enough money to cover the costs of the initial purpose. However, the pimp can inflate the price so that she can never leave. Or, he can also ‘fine’ her, for example if a client complains about her, and add to her costs. Even if a woman manages to work off her debt, the pimp will often sell her to another pimp where the cycle repeats itself.

Escape is impossible for the majority of trafficked women as many of them remain locked in a room at all times. Even if they do manage to escape the women face other obstacles. In some cases the police are corrupt and will return them to their pimps. Often the women don’t speak the language of the country they have been trafficked to, and are considered to be illegal aliens. These women are re-victimized by the system and deported. If these women manage to successfully get police help they rarely are willing to be witnesses. There is no witness protection program for these women and as the traffickers often know about their family and children, the women are unwilling to take the risk of angering them further.

Although the trafficked individuals are the main victims, the family and friends left behind are victimized as well. These individuals often have no idea what happened to their loved one, and in many cases, will never neither see nor hear from them again. Pimps and traffickers also know about the victim’s family and often threaten to harm or kill them if the victim ever tries to leave.

Recruiters

The recruiters are the first people in the human trafficking chain. The majority of recruiters are females and were often, at one point in time, sex workers themselves. Often, the only way to escape the sex trade is become a recruiter. This change from victim to perpetrator is known as second wave recruiting.

These women advertise a glamorous job as a model or waitress in some foreign country, and flaunt the money potential by wearing beautiful clothes and jewellery or driving expensive cars. They seem kind and trustworthy. They point to themselves as examples of the rich rewards, promising safety and selling the glamour. It is common for recruiters to know the victim, or the victim’s family, personally.

Traffickers

Trafficking is a form of organized crime, and as such the traffickers are commonly gang members, who are also involved in other lucrative and illegal businesses, most commonly drugs. Small time criminals can also be traffickers, as can local pimps and even family members or friends. Traffickers can be male or female. In the past, traffickers were most commonly male but research has found that there are numerous women behind the business these days as well. Traffickers aren’t necessarily ‘bad’ figures in the public eye, and may instead appear to be honest and up-standing community members.

Trafficking in Canada

Due to the underground nature of this crime, there is very little data surrounding the specificities of human trafficking.  In 2006 it was estimated that 800-1200 people were trafficked through and into Canada. Today it is estimated that at least 2500 foreign women are trafficked into Canada every year, 1500-2200 of which are trafficked through Canada and into the United States. However, it is believed that only 1 in 10 victims in Canada actually go to the police, so numbers are expected be to be much higher.

Canadian citizens are also victims of human trafficking, specifically Aboriginal women and girls as young as 7. Aboriginal girls have been trafficked domestically since the 1950’s; statistics have shown that 90% of teenage prostitutes are of aboriginal origin. However, due to factors such as poverty, abuse, living conditions, and racism, aboriginal women are much more likely to become victims of international trafficking than non-aboriginal women.

Some of the girls are runaways, but others just want to leave their community for life in a bigger city. When this is the case, the girls are targeted almost immediately. The traffickers often know someone within the aboriginal community who will inform them of any girl’s departure, so in many cases the girls are picked up upon arrival from the airport or bus station. The aboriginal culture is very accepting of strangers, so the young girls tend to trust anyone who promises them a place to stay or access to any resources, making them easy targets to lure into the business.

In September of 2010 the RCMP Criminal Intelligence Program and the Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre released Human Trafficking in Canada: A Threat Assessment. The report found that Canada is a primary destination country for human trafficking for sexual purposes. Some of the victims enter illegally, though many enter legally through student visas. The victims are often hidden under fronts of massage parlours, escort services, and domestic brothels.

Causes

Human trafficking thrives based on push factors and pull factors. Push factors are factors that make women and children more vulnerable to be targeted for the global sex market. These factors tend to push the victims out of their community in search of better circumstances. Common push factors include the following:

  • Poverty
  • High unemployment rate
  • Domestic violence
  • Childhood abuse
  • Discrimination against women
  • War or terrorism that cause people to look for an escape
  • Desire for a better life for themselves and their families
Pull factors are the factors that make the global sex industry to successful. The biggest pull factor is high global demand for sex. Millions of brothels, strip bars, massage parlours, and escort services exist everywhere; all seeking young, beautiful women to serve and pleasure paying patrons. Amongst these businesses are the ever popular street corners which (mostly) men visit on a regular basis looking for sex.  The consumerism surrounding sex causes the workers to be quickly ‘used up’ which leaves the businesses looking for new, fresh bodies. The only way to feed this high demand is through trickery and trafficking.

The Fight Against Human Trafficking

Organizations and governments around the world are fighting to put an end to human trafficking. Canada has taken the following steps to help prevent and end the trafficking of humans:

  • In 2000 Canada ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which includes “sexual slavery” as a crime against humanity.
  • In 2000 Canada signed (and in 2002 ratified) the United Nations’ Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.
  • Section 118 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act states that; “No person shall knowingly organize the coming into Canada of one or more persons by means of abduction, fraud, deception or use or threat of force or coercion.”  The maximum penalty for this offence is life imprisonment, a fine of $1,000,000 or both.
  • Canada has also ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Under the CRC, Canada has agreed to provide any trafficked children with special protection, assistance, and attention.
  • Kiladon-St. Paul MP Joy Smith has been an avid advocate against human trafficking since she was elected in 2004. She has brought the issue of human trafficking to the forefront in Canadian politics and has also increased awareness of this issue in the public on a national level which has resulted in many changes to the Immigration and Refugee Act and the Criminal Code (Bill C-268). She has was also successful in having Parliament condemn human trafficking, had a comprehensive study done on this issue resulting in the report Turning Outrage into Action, and proposed a national action plan to combat human trafficking titled, Connecting the Dots.
  • In 2012 the Safe Streets and Communities Act was passed which reformed the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act to make it possible to deny work permits to applicants vulnerable to abuse or exploitation, including those vulnerable to humiliating and degrading treatment or sexual exploitation, such as exotic dancers and low-skilled labourers.
  • MP Joy Smith’s Private Members Bill, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (trafficking in persons), received Royal Assent on June 28, 2012. This bill ensures that Canadian citizens and permanent residents can now be held fully responsible for their actions if they chose to commit offences of exploitation or human trafficking outside of Canada. This bill effectively makes it so that Canadian offenders cannot escape prosecution by committing exploitation offences in other countries and then returning to Canada without being held accountable.

As a result of the efforts of the Canadian government and individuals such as Joy Smith, the Canadian Criminal Code now includes the following sections which pertain specifically to human trafficking:

  • S. 183 (xlvii.1 and xlvii.11): Invasion of privacy- “offence” means an offence contrary to, any conspiracy or attempt to commit or being an accessory after the fact in relation to an offence contrary to, or any counselling in relation to an offence contrary to section279.01 and 279.011 (trafficking persons under 18 years).
  • S. 279(1): Kidnapping- this section includes causing an unwilling person to be unlawfully transported outside of Canada.
  • S.279.01: Trafficking in Persons- this includes controlling the movements of recruiting, harbouring, transporting, receiving or concealing person for the purpose of exploiting them.
  • S.279.011: Trafficking persons under the age of 18- this includes controlling the movements of, recruiting, harbouring, transporting, receiving or concealing person for the purpose of exploitation, and also includes a mandatory minimum sentence of 5 years imprisonment. If there are aggravating factors, such as kidnapping, aggravated assault or aggravated sexual assault against, or if the offender causes death to, the minor victim during the commission of the offence, the mandatory minimum penalty is 6 years imprisonment.
  • S. 279.02: Material Benefit- Benefitting economically from trafficking.
  • S. 279.03: Withholding or Destroying Documents- this includes destroying identification, travel, or immigrations documents to facilitate trafficking.
  • S. 279.04: Exploitation

Other criminal code sections that pertain to trafficking include: extortion, forcible confinement, conspiracy, organized crime, and controlling or living off the avails of prostitution.

In Canada, anti-human trafficking efforts are enforced by an Interdepartmental Working Group on Trafficking in Persons (IWGTIP). IWGTIP is co-chaired by the Public Safety and Justice Canada and is made up of 17 departments and agencies. Federal efforts through IWGTIP are based on the ‘4-Ps’.

  • Prevention of trafficking through education, public awareness, research, and training.
  • Protection of victims through understanding and providing supports that address their specific needs.
  • Prosecution of offenders through legislation and support for law enforcement and aids for witness testimony.
  • Partnerships across all levels – local, regional, national and international – involving both government and civil society organizations.

Conclusion

Every country in the world has laws about kidnapping and forcing individuals into prostitution; however in some countries these laws are not strongly enforced. The human aspects of these women are looked over and instead they are treated like object- toys whose sole purpose is to provide pleasure to whoever pays.

Human trafficking is slavery and needs to be stopped. As media figures such as Victor Malarek uncover this underground world, governments and international organizations are stepping up to the challenge. Changes in legislation and customs have proved to be beneficial but there is still a long way to go. Education is key; not just for the experts and law enforcement but for the general public as well.

To learn more about human trafficking and how you can make a difference please visit the links listed below:

EPCAT International: http://www.ecpat.net/EI/GetInvolve_campaign.asp
Canada Fights Human Trafficking: http://www.canadafightshumantrafficking.com/get_involved.html
The Future Group: http://www.thefuturegroup.org/id20.html
Human Trafficking Org: http://www.humantrafficking.org/content/combat_trafficking

Beyond Borders. “Beyond Borders Fact Sheet on Trafficking Children for Sexual Purposes.” February 2009. http://www.beyondborders.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/beyond-borders-fact-sheet-on-trafficking-of-children-for-sexual-purposes.pdf

Cherry, Tamara. “Flesh Trade Targets Natives.” November 2008. Toronto Sun. http://www.torontosun.com/news/canada/2008/09/29/6916776-sun.html

Cockburn, Andrew. “21st Century Slaves.” National Geographic. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0309/feature1/

Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. “Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling.” Updated
October 2010. http://www.international.gc.ca/crime/human-traf-personne.aspx

Malarek, Victor. “The Natashas The New Global Sex Trade.” 2004. Penguin Group: Toronto, Canada.
PBS. “Sex Slaves.” 2007. PBS frontline documentary.

Public Safety Canada. “Human Trafficking.” Updated September 2010. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/le/ht-tp-eng.aspx

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. “Human Trafficking in Canada: A Threat Assessment.” September 2010. http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/ht-tp/htta-tpem-eng.htm

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. “Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre.” Updated 2011. http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/ht-tp/index-eng.htm

The Future Group. “Human Trafficking.” http://www.thefuturegroup.org/id20.html

Salvation Army. “Human Sex Trafficking.” http://salvationist.ca/action-support/human-sexual-trafficking/